Center for Reproductive and Fetal Medicine



How long do you have to wait, if you are trying to conceive, until you have a sperm test?

If you are under 35, you can wait for a year, but over 35 you should consult your doctor after six months trying to conceive.


Are there any visible signs of male infertility?

Some men will have visible marks, but not all. For example, small testicular size may be associated with hormonal abnormality and infertility. Gynecomastia (which is an enlargement or swelling of the breast tissue in men), obesity, lack of facial or body hair, and low body height are also natural signs of male infertility.


What are the reasons for not being able to conceive naturally?

Sperm disorders: This happens when the sperm is either strangely shaped, does not move properly, has a low number or there is actually no sperm at all. All these different characteristics are analyzed - number, shape and movement. Normal sperm count ranges from 15 million to more than 200 million sperm per ml. Sperm motility must be above 40% T.
Normal sperm count should not be less than 4%. Anomaly in either number, shape or movement can cause infertility.

Varicose veins: There is a link between varicose veins and infertility. It can reduce the number of sperm, reduce sperm motility and cause an increase in the number of deformed sperm.
Varicose veins can also cause excessive heat. Excessive heat damages the sperm by raising the temperature of the testicles, which is supposed to be about 2 ° C colder than the body.

Retrograde ejaculation: This happens when sperm enters the bladder instead of emerging through the penis during ejaculation, so it essentially goes back to the body.

Immune sterility: This occurs when antibodies attack the sperm of the human being himself, binding to the surface of the sperm. This can affect sperm motility.

Obstruction: Sometimes the sperm duct can be blocked, which means that the sperm from the testicles cannot leave the body during ejaculation. This blockage can be caused by a variety of reasons, such as infections or surgery (angioectomy).

Hormones: Very low levels of hormones cause poor sperm growth. Any disorder of the thyroid stimulating hormone, prolactin and blood sugar hormones can cause male infertility. Testosterone and FSH (the follicle-stimulating hormone, which regulates the body's growth and reproductive processes) can be indicators of male infertility.

Chromosomes: Changes in the number and structure of chromosomes can affect fertility.
Y chromosome infertility is a condition that affects sperm production and causes male infertility, which means that it is difficult or impossible for infected men to conceive. Any other chromosomal abnormality can also affect the sperm.

Medication: Some drugs can change sperm production, function and quality. Hypertension drugs and antidepressants have been found to be responsible for erectile dysfunction. Chemotherapy can completely damage sperm production.

Can you deal with any of the above?
Sperm disorders should be thoroughly evaluated and treatment should be scheduled accordingly. A surgical approach or hormonal support are methods commonly used in the treatment of male infertility.
Cases of male infertility are treated with the use of intracellular sperm injection (sperm injection into the egg with a microscope) which gives satisfactory pregnancy rates even in severe cases.


* The content on this blog is not intended to replace professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of qualified health care providers with questions you may have about medical conditions.

Center for Reproductive and Fetal Medicine

Effective doctor-patient communication is vital to providing high-quality health care. Any communication regarding your medical profile (getting results, instructions, answering questions, concerns) will be done directly with the doctor. This means no midwife or secretary will interrupt your conversations. Instead, if you call with any concerns, they will be there right away to address your needs. Contact us by calling 694 649 8771 or by completing the relevant Contact Form.

Dr. Alexandros Traianos


Call (+30) 2310 277 032 or visit the Frequently Asked Questions

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The association of IVF drugs with cancer risk is a major concern for women enrolled in these programs. But the plethora of bibliographic reports collected from credible scientific studies and published in reputable medical journals worldwide are reassuring and do not confirm this concern.

Of course not. In about a third of cases, infertility is due to the woman (female factor), while in a third of cases, it is due to the man (male factor). The remaining one-third is due to both (both men and women) or even to unknown factors.

The quantity and quality of a man's sperm can be affected by his health and lifestyle. Some factors that can reduce the quantity and / or quality of sperm are:

  • the alcohol
  • drugs
  • environmental toxins, including pesticides and lead
  • smoking
  • health problems
  • medicines
  • radiotherapy and chemotherapy
  • the age

Success rates vary at each IVF Center. Very important factors are also the age of the woman, the levels of her hormones and of course the sperm of the husband. Rates generally range from 45% or slightly higher for women up to 35 years old.

Infertility is defined as the failure to conceive after one year (or 6 months, if it is a woman over 35) with normal, regular sexual intercourse. In other words, when a year passes without the woman becoming pregnant, the couple should consult their doctor to determine the cause of the pregnancy and then treat it. We must all, however, be aware and not forget that the age factor is the most critical for female fertility and that the individualized approach of each couple is the "golden key" that solves the problem.

The number of treatment cycles a woman can undergo is not specified. It is certain that in our country there are high level obstetricians-gynecologists and organized infertility treatment centers, which offer impeccable medical services at this level. If there are correct indications (eg ovaries that respond to stimulation therapy, good quality endometrium, etc.) the success rate -especially with the use of newer techniques and biotechnological drugs, which show increased bioactivity compared to conventional drugs from urine- totals approximately 65%-70% after 4 cycles of treatment.

At the Center for Reproductive Medicine of Dr. Traianos we offer egg / sperm cryopreservation services for those who have a personal or medical reason and need this service. We use the most modern vitrification technique in the freezing of sperm and eggs.

The collection of eggs takes 10-15 minutes, it is not painful, it is done under intoxication and after the end of the process you return to your activities.

In general, experts agree that the fact that a couple has already had a child can be considered evidence that there is no infertility problem in the first place. It is like a small test that has been done and proves that they "succeeded" at least once. On the other hand, we need to know that in the meantime things may have changed and a problem may have arisen (eg the man may have had some inflammation that affects the quality of his sperm or has mediated something that affects female fertility: an inflammation, a gynecological surgery, an abortion, etc.). In any case, if a reasonable period of time (one year) passes and a couple can not achieve a pregnancy, then he should with the help of his doctor investigate if there has been a problem that causes infertility.