Infertility is defined as the inability of a couple to achieve a pregnancy after trying for at least a year.
About 40% of infertility cases are due to a problem with the man's sperm. About another 40% of infertility causes is due to a problem with the woman. Some of the causes include ovulation problems, fallopian tube problems, cervical problems and endometriosis. About 20% of infertility cases are due to problems in both men and women or to an unknown cause.
Infertility problems in men can be due to problems in their sperm. Some men may have low sperm count or low motility, while some sperm may have abnormal morphology. An abnormal sperm volume can also reduce the chances of successful fertilization.
There are many conditions that can negatively affect your sperm, such as having only one testicle, testicles that are smaller than normal or abnormally large veins (varicose veins) in the testicles. There are things that can affect sperm formation (spermatogenesis), including exposure to various toxins, alcohol abuse, drug use, anabolic steroid use, diabetes and thyroid or other endocrine problems. There are treatments that can help male infertility. A Reproductive Medicine specialist can improve your sperm motility by giving small doses of testosterone. You can get rid of varicose veins through surgery. There is also a procedure called intrauterine insemination (IUI) that can help. Intrauterine insemination is the direct injection of sperm into the inner cavity of the uterus (endometrium) and aims to increase the number of sperm introduced into the fallopian tubes, thus helping to fertilize the eggs.
Ovulation problems are responsible for most cases of female infertility. If there are problems with ovulation, there may be no eggs for fertilization. Thyroid and pituitary problems can be responsible for ovulation problems.
Endometriosis can lead to pelvic adhesions. Pelvic adhesions are the fibrous tissue (scars) that prevent sperm from reaching the egg or prevent fertilization. Pelvic adhesions can also block a fallopian tube. Hysterosalpingography is an X-ray test that can show if a fallopian tube is blocked. This examination perfectly illustrates both the uterine cavity and the fallopian tubes, often giving immediate and substantive answers to the causes of female infertility.
There are also medications that can cure endometriosis. In addition, surgery may be required if there is an obstruction caused by pelvic adhesions.
Problems with the cervix
Problems with the cervix can also cause infertility. The cervix produces mucus, which helps transport sperm to the uterus. Occasionally, the mucus is very thick and prevents sperm from entering the uterus. There are some cases where there is a smaller amount of mucus due to injury that reduces the number of glands in the cervix. Also, if surgery or infection has caused scarring on the cervix, the opening in the cervix may become smaller, making it harder for sperm to enter.
If you have questions about male and female infertility, call us at (+30) 2310 277 032 to make an appointment at the "Alexandros Traianos Center for Reproductive Medicine & Fetal Medicine" located at 2 Patr. Ioakeim Street, Thessaloniki.
* The content on this blog is not intended to replace professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of qualified health care providers with questions you may have about medical conditions.